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Poisonous animals
 
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
 
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Sea snakes
 
Terrestrial snakes
 
Miscellaneous animals
 
North America
 
Mexico and Central America
 
South America and the West Indies
 
Europe
 
North Africa, Near and Middle East
 
Central and Southern Africa
 
The Far East
 
Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia
 
Australia and the Pacific Islands
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Biological features of terrestrial snakes

The Far East

 

 

Description of the most important representatives:

 


General behaviour
Habitats
Appearance
Defensive behaviour
Factors relevant to envenoming

Bungarus sp.

 



nocturnal

 

ground-dwelling

forests, open areas, agricultural zones, populated areas

slender snakes, smallest species between 70 and 90 cm long, largest up to 2 m; several species with clear cross bands along the body

very shy during the day; when threatened the head is hidden under the coils of the body

bites only occur at night, and many victims are bitten while sleeping; the bite often goes unnoticed and the victim awakes with neurotoxic symptoms

Naja sp.


nocturnal and diurnal

 

ground-dwelling

forests, open areas, agricultural zones; often in densely populated areas

slender to sturdy body; wide head, but not clearly distinct from the body; length 1–2 m

raising the first third of the body, neck region is spread out into a flat hood; some species with a marking on the back of the flattened  hood (see picture)

not known

Ophiophagus hannah

nocturnal or diurnal

 

ground-dwelling

primarily in dense forest, sometimes also in open areas; never in densely populated areas

appearance as for Naja sp., but up to 4 or 5 m long; sturdy body, yet appears slender

as for Naja sp. (see above); in the defensive position can raise their head to a height of over 1.5 m from the ground; grunting warning sound

bites are rare

Daboia russelli ssp.

 

 

primarily nocturnal

 

ground-dwelling

open grasslands or scrubland; plantations, often in rice fields

sturdy body with an average length of 1 m (maximum 1.5 m); body markings consist of dark ovals

repeated, intermittent puffing through the large nostrils; at the same time the body is formed into taut coils

victims are chiefly rural workers, primarily in rice fields

Gloydius sp.

 

 

 


nocturnal in warm weather, diurnal in cool; in cooler regions they hibernate

 

ground-dwelling

in deserts, semi-deserts and stony regions, but also in forested areas; some species in alpine areas; G. blomhoffii in wet, preferably forested regions and in agricultural areas (rice fields)

sturdy body, generally under 1 m in length

flattening of the body; the tip of the tail is vibrated, which causes a rustling sound in loose substrate (e.g. leaves)

not known

Deinagkistrodon acutus

nocturnal in warm weather, diurnal in cool; in cooler regions they hibernate

 

ground-dwelling

in forested, hilly and mountainous regions, prefer rocky areas

sturdy body with tapering head; characteristic upturned "horn" on the tip of the snout

the tip of the tail is vibrated, which causes a rustling sound in loose substrate (e.g. leaves)

dangerous snakes that are commonly collected in China for the production of traditional medical remedies; bite victims are often snake catchers

Trimeresurus sp.,

according to the old classification (including the new subgenera/genera Craspedocephalus, Himalayophis, Ovophis, Parias, Peltopelor, Popeia, Protobothrops, Sinovipera, Trimeresurus, Tropidolaemus and Viridovipera)

most species are arboreal (bushes and shrubs), some are ground-dwelling

wooded regions, open areas with bushes and shrubs, parks in cities, gardens

smaller snakes under 1 m; the most important species in medical terms are green, without markings

body is held in an S-shaped coil

common cause of snakebites