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Poisonous animals
 
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
 
Venomous fish
 
Scorpions
 
Spiders
 
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
 
Sea snakes
 
Terrestrial snakes
 
Miscellaneous animals
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Emergency & clinical flowcharts

 

Signs and symptoms1
  Emergency medical treatment   Region   Possible cause
  Antivenom2
         

Cholinergic effects:
vomiting, profuse sweating, hypersalivation, increased bronchial secretion, priapism, bradycardia, arterial hypotension (see Diagnosis & Treatment: Hospital)

Adrenergic effects:
tachycardia, arrhythmias, arterial hypertension, hyperglycaemia (see Diagnosis & Treatment: Hospital)

Somatic effects:
neuromuscular dysfunction of the skeletal musculature (muscle fasciculations and spasms, muscle pain, motor agitation), differential diagnosis: acute abdomen (see Diagnosis & Treatment: Hospital)

 

Local effects:
pain, redness, swelling, necrosis (see Diagnosis & Treatment: Hospital)

    

Early endotracheal intubation, suctioning of bronchial secretions, artificial respiration;
caution is required in the treatment of pulmonary oedema with diuretics if there is concurrent hypovolaemia (see Diagnosis & Treatment: Hospital);

caution is required in correcting hypovolaemia if there is concurrent pulmonary oedema (see Diagnosis & Treatment: Hospital);
muscle pain and cramps: calcium gluconate (see Diagnosis & Treatment: Hospital);
contraindicated or to be avoided: opiates, benzodiazepines

  Southeast Australia   Atrax sp.
Hadronyche sp.

  MAVIN Antivenom index
  Worldwide   Latrodectus sp.

 

 
  South America
 

 Phoneutria sp.


 
  Europe  

Arenea
and possibly other species

   
         
Severe local pain and local swelling within 2–8 h after the bite;
local cyanosis within 12–24 h;
blister formation, possibly haemorrhagic;
necrosis within 24–48 h
  Infiltration with local anaesthetic (xylocaine 1%, max. 0.5 ml, without the addition of a vasoconstrictor), nerve block
 

North, Central and South America; Africa to the Mediterranean

 

Loxosceles sp.

 

  MAVIN Antivenom index
         
Contact with urticating hairs:
Eyes: conjunctivitis, keratitis, iritis, chorioretinitis;
Skin: urticaria, papular dermatitis (see "Bird spider-like species")
  Topical corticosteroids (see "Bird spider-like species")
  America  

Bird spider-like species

   
         
Local:
pain, redness, swelling, (necrosis)
  Symptomatic local treatment (see Diagnosis & Treatment: General practitioner / health post)
  Worldwide   Numerous species, including Chiracanthium sp.  

 

 

 

 

 

1

See also the Clinical flowchart as a guide to the dynamics of envenoming.
2

See "Essentials of the management of envenoming and poisoning: 9. How is the appropriate antivenom chosen? When is it administered?"

If clinical information regarding the efficacy of an antivenom is available, it is presented in the relevant Biomedical database entry.