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V1.2.0 (T12376)
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Poisonous animals
 
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
 
Venomous fish
 
Scorpions
 
Spiders
 
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
 
Sea snakes
 
Terrestrial snakes
 
Miscellaneous animals
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Emergency & clinical flowcharts

 

Signs and symptoms1
  Emergency medical treatment   Possible cause
  Antivenom2
       

Strong pain, superficial or deep puncture wounds (see Diagnosis & Treatment: General practitioner / health post);

 

physical injuries to internal organs with or without additional effects of the venom (see Diagnosis & Treatment: General practitioner / health post);

 

Penetration of the spine into the pericardial, pleural or abdominal cavity (see Diagnosis & Treatment: General practitioner / health post)

 

Cardiac dysrhythmias? (see Diagnosis & Treatment: General practitioner / health post)

  Infiltration of a local anaesthetic without the addition of a vasoconstrictor (lignocaine 1%);

Nerve block anaesthesia (lignocaine, bupivacaine);

surgical treatment (see Diagnosis & Treatment: General practitioner / health post)
  Stingrays
  
       
Strong pain, puncture wound(s);

vomiting, diarrhoea, increased perspiration, confusion, loss of consciousness, cardiac arrhythmias, paralyses
  
See above

see Diagnosis & Treatment: General practitioner / health post
  Stonefishes and their relatives (Synanceiidae)
 

MAVIN Antivenom index

  Lionfishes (Pteroinae)
  
  Other Mail-cheeked fishes (Scorpaeniformes)
       
Strong pain, puncture wound (see Diagnosis & Treatment: General practitioner / health post)
  See above
  Weeverfishes (Trachinus sp.)
  
       

Strong pain, puncture wound (see Diagnosis & Treatment: General practitioner / health post)

 

? vomiting, diarrhoea, increased perspiration, confusion, loss of consciousness, cardiac arrhythmias, paralyses (see Diagnosis & Treatment: General practitioner / health post)

  See above
  Catfishes
  
       
(Strong) pain, puncture wound (see Diagnosis & Treatment: General practitioner / health post)   See above
  All other stinging fish (see Biomedical database)
  

 

 

1
See also the Clinical flowchart as a guide to the dynamics of envenoming.
2

See "Essentials of the management of envenoming and poisoning: 9. How is the appropriate antivenom chosen? When is it administered?".

If clinical information regarding the efficacy of an antivenom is available, it is presented in the relevant Biomedical database entry.