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V1.2.0 (T12376)
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Poisonous animals
 
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
 
Venomous fish
 
Scorpions
 
Spiders
 
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
 
Sea snakes
 
Terrestrial snakes
 
Miscellaneous animals
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Emergency & clinical flowcharts

 

 Signs and symptoms1
  Emergency medical treatment
  Antivenom
     
Patient history:
Is the patient known to have a Hymenoptera allergy?
      No antivenom available
    
Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, urticaria, angio-oedema, bronchospasm, arterial hypotension (systemic allergic reaction)
  Treatment of general allergic reactions (see Diagnosis & Treatment: General practitioner / health post)
 
    
Extensive local swelling (strong allergic reaction)
  Treatment of local allergic reactions (see Diagnosis & Treatment: General practitioner / health post)  
    
Extensive local swelling possibly involving the trunk → hypovolaemia → hypovolaemic shock (increased regional capillary permeability)
  Treatment of the hypovolaemia/hypovolaemic shock
 
    
Multiple stings
Icterus, urine colour, acute renal failure (haemolysis)
 

Treatment of the haemolysis, if necessary blood transfusions;
prevention/treatment of the acute renal failure

 
    
Multiple stings
Muscle pain (spontaneous, with active/passive movement), urine colour, ECG changes, signs of paralysis (rhabdomyolysis)
  Treatment of the hyperkalaemia;
prevention and treatment of the acute renal failure;
treatment of the respiratory insufficiency/respiratory failure;
endotracheal intubation and artificial respiration
 

 

1
See also the Clinical flowchart as a guide to the dynamics of envenoming.