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Poisonous animals
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
Venomous fish
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
Sea snakes
Terrestrial snakes
Miscellaneous animals
North America
Mexico and Central America
South America and the West Indies
North Africa, Near and Middle East
Central and Southern Africa
The Far East
Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia
Australia and the Pacific Islands


Transforming the hard-copy guide to the biology and clinical management of venomous and poisonous animals (“Notfallhandbuch Gifttiere”) into a free-access internet-based online version was a great challenge. A great team and three Foundations joined together in a marvellous collaboration to produce a wonderful result: the VAPAGuide - Guidance for the biological and clinical management of Venomous And Poisonous Animals.


Very special thanks go to our colleagues in the small core team of the VAPAGuide, for their excellent work and great enthusiasm and dedication.


Mr. Matthias Zepf and Dr. Markus Stoll of the software company Junidas converted the print version of the “Notfallhandbuch Gifttiere” into a smart and beautiful online version, the multi-layered framework of the VAPAGuide.


Very warm thanks go to Ms. Elizabeth Morgan for her elegant and meticulous translation of the German text into English, no simple task considering the 670 pages in the original book, densely filled with the diverse terminology of biology and medicine.


At this point we would like to mention the sad loss of our original translator, Dr. Markus Schwarzenbach, who passed away shortly after beginning work on the project.


Many thanks to Mr. Alban Mahrer for his patience and admirable accuracy in importing and adapting the extensive raw data from the “Notfallhandbuch Gifttiere” to the electronic version.


We are also indebted to Dr. Lukas Stammler, whose drawings convey the beauty and aesthetics of the features and essential characteristics of various venomous and poisonous animals.

We have been very privileged over the past 15 years to have had the advice of Professor David A. Warrell who has spent so many years studying clinical toxinological problems and treating envenomed and poisoned patients in many different countries.


We are most grateful to the following foundations for recognising the value of a free-access online version of our book “Notfallhandbuch Gifttiere” and for supporting this project:


International Emergency Care Foundation (IECF), Zürich,


Stanley Thomas Johnson Foundation, Berne,


Rudolf Geigy Foundation, Basel, Switzerland