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Poisonous animals
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
Venomous fish
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
Sea snakes
Terrestrial snakes
Miscellaneous animals
North America
Mexico and Central America
South America and the West Indies
North Africa, Near and Middle East
Central and Southern Africa
The Far East
Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia
Australia and the Pacific Islands

The VAPAGuide team

The input of many specialists and non-specialists worldwide helped to establish the VAPAGuide (see acknowledgements and

Introduction by the authors (excerpt from the “Notfallhandbuch Gifttiere”, Junghanss and Bodio, 1996)).


The core team of the VAPAGuide consists of:


  • Matthias Zepf, Dr. Markus Stoll and Jürgen Nitsch, Junidas GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany (software development and hosting)
  • Elizabeth Morgan, Norwich, UK (translation)
  • Alban Mahrer, Basel, Switzerland (data editing)
  • Dr. Lukas Stammler, Basel, Switzerland (figures)
  • Prof. Thomas Junghanss, Section Clinical Tropical Medicine, University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany (author)
  • Dr. Mauro Bodio, Basel, Switzerland (author)