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V1.6.13 T363
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Poisonous animals
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
Venomous fish
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
Sea snakes
Terrestrial snakes
Miscellaneous animals

Important information for the user

Technical information (web browsers)

Proper use

For correct use of the guide the user should carefully read the section "How to use the VAPAGuide" and "Essentials of the   management of envenoming and poisoning" in advance!

Internal links

An internal link leads to the TOP of the entry containing the information you are looking for. Please scroll down to the respective section.

WHO Antivenom list

This external link leeds to the WHO page "Venomous snakes distribution and species risk categories". Please click "Database search" in the menu. Then click "Search by Snake species" or "Search by Antivenom products" as appropriate.


The principle aim of this site is to provide information useful to improving outcomes for humans suffering from envenoming or poisoning by animals.
All reasonable precautions have been taken by the authors to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the authors be liable for damages arising from its use.

Copyright Junghanss / Bodio 2011