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Poisonous animals
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
Venomous fish
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
Sea snakes
Terrestrial snakes
Miscellaneous animals

Morphological identification of spiders



Morphology of a spider (a). Arrangement and direction of movement of the venomous fangs (b): 1 Mygalomorph spider, 2 Labidognath spider.

See "General informations on spiders" for more details.








Medically important spiders:


-According carapace with the arrangement of the eyes

-Description of morphological features


Latrodectus sp.

Black widow spiders

Loxosceles sp.

Brown recluse spiders

Phoneutria sp.

Wandering spiders

Atrax sp.

Sidney funnel-web spiders

Typically round abdomen. The cephalothorax (head and anterior part of the body) appears small in comparison. Eyes arranged in 2 rows. Body length in females 1–1.8 cm, in males barely more than 0.5 cm.

Colouring from shiny black to brownish. L. mactans and L. geometricus possess a red marking in the form of an hourglass or two triangles on the ventral surface of their abdomen, 

L. geometricus also has markings in the form of geometrical patterns on the dorsal surface of the abdomen. In L. hasselti and L. indistinctus there is usually a red or orange longitudinal stripe along the dorsal surface of the abdomen. In L. tredecimguttatus there may be several red spots distributed over the dorsal surface of its abdomen or there may be none at all. Juvenile animals often have markings that differ from those in adults.

Body length 0.8–1.5 cm, leg length 1.8–3 cm. 6 eyes in a curved line arranged in 3 pairs. Colouring generally light to dark brown. In many species there is a distinctive, dark marking in the form of a violin on the cephalothorax

P. nigriventer:

Body length in up to 3 cm, leg length 4.5–6 cm, males smaller. Other species may reach a body length of about 5 cm and a leg span of about 18 cm!

Body covered with short hairs. Colouring greyish to brown-grey, chelicerae (venomous fangs) surrounded by red hairs at the base. Light-coloured marking on the upper surface of the abdomen. 8 eyes in 3 rows.


Sturdy body with massive venomous fangs. Body length in A. robustus up to 4 cm (female animals) or up to 2.5 cm (male animals). Shiny black, hairless cephalothorax (head and thorax). Posterior part of the body without markings, dark blue to dark purple in males, pale in females. 8 eyes closely grouped. 2 prominent spinnerets which are located underneath the end of the abdomen.