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Poisonous animals
 
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
 
Venomous fish
 
Scorpions
 
Spiders
 
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
 
Sea snakes
 
Terrestrial snakes
 
Miscellaneous animals
 
North America
 
Mexico and Central America
 
South America and the West Indies
 
Europe
 
North Africa, Near and Middle East
 
Central and Southern Africa
 
The Far East
 
Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia
 
Australia and the Pacific Islands
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Clinic

 

various Bothrops sp.

Studies

Brazil (hinterland of Salvador)

B. leucurus
Da Silva and Nunes 1993: 106 B. leucurus bites; identification probably morphological.

Case reports

B. neuwiedi
Dempfle et al. 1990: 1 case; identification morphological.

Signs & symptoms

Local effects

B. leucurus
Local pain 97/106, local swelling 84/106, necrosis 2/106 (da Silva and  Nunes 1993).


B. neuwiedi
Local swelling; haemorrhagic necrosis (Dempfle et al. 1990).

Haemostatic effects

B. leucurus
Haemorrhage 11/106 (da Silva and Nunes 1993).


B. neuwiedi
Bleeding from venipuncture sites (Dempfle et al. 1990).

Renal effects

B. leucurus
Anuria 2/106 (da Silva and Nunes 1993).

Laboratory and physical investigations

1. Haemostasis
Type of haemostatic defect
Defibrin(ogen)ation via direct fibrinogen-coagulating ("thrombin-like") activity.

Haemostatic parameters

 

Overview haemostasis
   
A
 
   
B
 
B
 
B
 
 
D
 
D
 
                   
 
H CT (FSP) Tc PT aPTT TT I FSP D II V VIII X XIII PC ATIII PI tPA α2AP
       
 
E
     
 
C
   
 
F
 
F
 
F
 
F
 
F
 
 
G
 
H
 
 
H
 

Essential

bed-side

tests

Tests for full clinical assessment Tests for research purposes
H haemorhagic effects
+ definite evidence in
human envenoming
CT full blood clotting test
(FSP)  FSP rapid test
Tc platlets
PT prothrombin time
aPTT partial thromboplastin time
TT thrombin time
I fibrinogen
FSP  fibrinogen split products
D D-dimer
II, V, VII, X, XIII
  clotting factors
PC protein C
ATIII antithrombin III
PI plasminogen
tPA tissue plasmin activator
α2AP α2-antiplasmin
 
In this overview, the deviations from normal
are recorded for those haemostasis para-
meters only, for which good evidence is
documented in the literature.
 
A Clotting time:
B. leucurus
Incoagulable 38/106 (da Silva and Nunes 1993).
B PT, aPTT, TT:
B. neuwiedi
PT <5% (normal 70–100%) (5 h after the bite); aPTT >300 s (normal <40 s) (5 h after the bite); TT >300 s (normal <26 s) (5 h after the bite) (Dempfle et al. 1990).
C

Fibrinogen:

B. neuwiedi
< 0.25 g/l (5 h after the bite), <0.10 g/l (7 h after the bite), normal levels from 3 days after the bite (normal 2–4 g/l; Clauss method) (Dempfle et al. 1990).

D FSP, D-dimers:
B. neuwiedi
D-dimers 16 μl/ml (7 h after the bite), maximum 32 μl/ml, no longer detectable from the 3rd day after the bite (normal <0.5 μg/ml) (Dempfle et al. 1990).
E Platelets:
B. neuwiedi
Within the normal range (Dempfle et al. 1990).
F Clotting factors:
B. neuwiedi
Clotting factors 7 h after the bite: II: 34% (normal 70–120%), X: 28% (normal 70–120%), V: 10% (normal 70–120%), XIII: 20% (normal 70–120%) (Dempfle et al. 1990).
G Inhibitors:
B. neuwiedi
ATIII (7 h after the bite) 57% (normal 60–120%) (Dempfle et al. 1990).
H Fibrinolysis:
B. neuwiedi
Plasminogen (7 h after the bite) 54% (normal 75–140%) (Dempfle et al. 1990).

2. Leucocytes
B. neuwiedi
15,100/μl (Dempfle et al. 1990).