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Poisonous animals
 
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Clinic

 

Hemachatus haemachatus

Case reports

South Africa
Rippey et al. 1976: 9 patients; bite 8/9, eye injury 1/9.
FitzSimons 1962: report of a bite suffered by the author.

Signs & symptoms

Local effects

Mild local swelling 2/8, ecchymosis in the area around the swelling 2/8 (Rippey et al. 1976).

Neurological effects

Diplopia, dyspnoea 1/8 (Rippey et al. 1976).
Dysphagia, dysphonia, blurred vision, weakness of the arms and legs, dyspnoea (loss of consciousness) (FitzSimons 1962).

Other signs & symptoms

Drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, dizziness 5/8 (Rippey et al. 1976).

Case fatality rate

0/8 (Rippey et al. 1976).

Morbidity

Necroses 0/8 (Rippey et al. 1976).

Treatment (specific)

Antivenom

Polyvalent antivenom (SAIMR, Johannesburg).

Evaluation and recommendations
Rippey et al. (1976) argue that the mild course in the 8 bite victims could be attributable to the prompt administration of antivenom, but point out that the small amounts of venom injected might also have played a role.