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Poisonous animals
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
Venomous fish
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
Sea snakes
Terrestrial snakes
Miscellaneous animals



Hydrophis sp.

H. cyanocinctus

See Biomedical database entry for Enhydrina schistosa.

H. spiralis

See Biomedical database entry for Enhydrina schistosa.

Case reports

Hydrophis semperi
Philippines (Lake Taal: freshwater lake!)

Watt and Theakston 1985: 8 patients were retrospectively identified as having been bitten by H. semperi. Criteria: the patients stated that the bite was caused by a sea snake. 

In 3/5 antibodies to H. cyanocinctus (ELISA) (Theakston et al. 1981) were found in the blood.

Only H. semperi Hydrophiidae were found in Lake Taal. It was reported that one patient died several days after being bitten by a sea snake.


Signs & symptoms

Muscular effects

Myalgia 5/8, pareses 4/8 (Watt and Theakston 1985).

The data from this study do not make it possible to clearly attribute the pareses to a myotoxic and/or neurotoxic effect of the venom.

Case fatality rate

See above under "Risk".