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Poisonous animals
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
Venomous fish
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
Sea snakes
Terrestrial snakes
Miscellaneous animals




Clinical studies, case reports and reviews

H. maculosa and H. lunulata
Flecker and Cotton 1955: 1 H. lunulata bite; identification: morphological.
Hopkins 1964: 1 H. maculosa bite; identification: morphological.
Lane and Sutherland 1967: 1 H. lunulata bite; identification: morphological.
Sutherland 1983: summary of cases from the literature and 1 personal communication. Identification: morphological and/or clinical course.
Walker 1983: 2 Hapalochlaena sp. bites; identification: morphological; clinical course.

Sutherland 1983
Sutherland and Lane 1969

Signs & symptoms

Local effects

Bite painless. Local redness (Flecker and Cotton 1955, Hopkins 1964, Sutherland 1983, Walker 1983).

Neurological effects

Symptoms of envenoming commence within minutes after the bite and progress rapidly. Nausea, vomiting, paraesthesias of the facial region. Rapidly progressive paralysis with very early involvement of the respiratory musculature. In particular the phrenic supply to the diaphragm is affected. Respiratory insufficiency and respiratory failure.

Of 11 cases reported between 1950 and 1983, 5 recovered within 24 h, 4 required days to weeks to recover and 2 died (see below) (Flecker and Cotton 1955, Hopkins 1964, Sutherland 1983, Lane and Sutherland 1967, Walker 1983).

Case fatality rate

1/1 (Flecker and Cotton 1955).
1/1 (Lane and Sutherland 1967).

First aid

Compression-immobilisation method (Sutherland 1983).

Treatment (symptomatic)

Endotracheal intubation and artificial respiration.

Treatment (specific)

Not available.