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Poisonous animals
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
Venomous fish
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
Sea snakes
Terrestrial snakes
Miscellaneous animals
North America
Mexico and Central America
South America and the West Indies
North Africa, Near and Middle East
Central and Southern Africa
The Far East
Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia
Australia and the Pacific Islands



Ophryacus spp., Mexican horned pitvipers

Clinical entries

For clinical data see section “Risk” below

formerly genus Bothrops or Porthidium


  • 1. Ophryacus smaragdinus
  • 2. Ophryacus sphenophrys
  • 3. Ophryacus undulatus


This new genus was previously included in the genera Bothrops or Porthidium (Campbell and Lamar 2004).


Serpentes; Viperidae; Crotalinae

Common names

Mexican horned pitvipers

  • 1. Emerald horned pitviper
  • 2. Broad horned pitviper
  • 3. Mexican horned pitviper


Southern and central Mexico. See link "Distribution" at the top of the page for detailed information.


Appearance similar to Bothriechis schlegelii. Distinctive spine-like scales above the eyes. Dorsal zigzag or blotchy pattern.

O. undulatus semiarboreal but tail not prehensile, moderately stout body; greyish or brownish color with darker blotches, body lenght between 55 and 70 cm; live in pine-oak and cloud forests, 1'800-2'800 m.

O. smaragdinus greenish color with brown blotches, living in montane cloud forest, humid pine-oak woodland and pine forest, 1'400-2'340 m.

O. sphenophrys with greenish ground color and darker zigzag pattern; found on extremely humid windward slopes of the Sierra Madre del Sur, at elevations between 1'340-1'460 m.


The clinical effects of bites from these species are unknown.

Literature (biological)

Campbell and Lamar 2004, Grünwald et al. 2015