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Poisonous animals
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
Venomous fish
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
Sea snakes
Terrestrial snakes
Miscellaneous animals



Alphabetical index


 A. Asadi; C. Montgelard, M. Nazarizadeh, A. Moghaddasi, F. Fatemizadeh, E. Simonov, H. G. Kami, M. Kaboli (2019)

Evolutionary history and postglacial colonization of an Asian pit viper (Gloydius halys caucasicus) into transcaucasia revealed by phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses. Scientific Reports 9:1224

 Abalos, J. W. (1963) (May 27, 2011 8:19:18 AM) (May 27, 2011 8:37:21 AM) (May 27, 2011 12:14:44 PM)

Scorpions of Argentinia. In Keegan, H. L., W. V. Mcfarlane: Venomous and poisonous animals and noxious plants in the Pacific region. Pergamon Press, Oxford: 111-117

 Abalos, J. W., E. C. Baez (1967)

The spider genus Latrodectus in Santiago dell Estero, Argentinia. Int. Symposium on Animal Toxins, Atlantic City. Pergamon Press, Oxford: 59-74

 Abalos, J. W., E. C. Baez, R. Nader (1964)

Serpientes de Santiago del estero. Acta Zoologica Lilloana 20: 211-283

 Abbott, K. H. (1944)

Tick-borne diseases (with particular reference to tick paralysis). Dis. nerv. Syst. 5: 19-21

 Abdun-Nur, D., C. S. Marcus, F. E. Russell (1981)

Pericarditis associated with scorpionfish (Scorpaena guttata) sting. Toxicon 19: 579-581

 Abourazzak, S., S. Achour, L. El Arqam, S. Atmani, S. Chaouki, I. Semlali (2009)

Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of scorpion stings in children in Fez, Morocco. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases. 15 (2): 255-267

 Abroug, F., S. ElAtrous, S. Nouira, H. Haguiga, et al. (1999)

Serotherapy in scorpion envenomation: A randomised controlles trial. Lancet 354: 906-909

 Abroug, F., S. Nouira, R. Boujdaria, M. Belghith, S. Bouchoucha (1991)

Cardiac dysfunction and pulmonary edema following scorpion envenomation. Chest 100: 1057-1059

 Abroug, F., S. Nouira, R. Boujdaria, M. Belghith, S. Bouchoucha (1992)

Communication to the editor. Chest 102: 1308-1309

 Abtin E., G. Nilson, A. Mobaraki, A. A. Hosseini, M. Dehgannejhad (2014)

A new species of Krait, Bungarus (Reptilia, Elapidae, Bungarinae) and the first record of that genus in Iran. Russian Journal of Herpetology, Vol. 21, No. 4: 243-250

 Abubakar, I. S., S. B. Abubakar, A. G. Habib, A. Nasidi, et al. (2010b)

Randomised controlled double-blind non-inferiority trial of two antivenoms for saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) envenoming in Nigeria. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 4 (7): e767

 Abubakar, S. B., I. S. Abubakar, A. G. Habib, A. Nasidi et al. (2010a)

Pre-clinical and preliminary dose-finding and safety studies to identify candidate antivenoms for treatment of envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus) in northern Nigeria. Toxicon 55: 719-723

 Abu-Nema, T., K. Ayyash, I. K. Wafaii, J. Al-Hassan, O. Thulesius (1988)

Jellyfish sting resulting in severe hand ischaemia successfully treated with intra-arterial urokinase. Injury 19: 294-296

 Acharjyo, L. N., T. S. N. Murthy (1983)

Studies on the King cobras of Orissa, India. Snake 15: 22-31

 Achaval, F., A. Melgarejo, M. Meneghel (1976)

Viboras venenosas del Uruguay. Istituto de Investigacion de Ciencas biologicas, Montevideo.: 6

 Acott, C. (1983)

Sea snake envenoming. Sth. Pacif. Underw. Med. Soc. 4: 8-12

 Acott, C. J. (1988)

Acute renal failure after envenomation by the common brown snake. Med. J. Aust. 149: 709-710

 Adiga, K. M. (1984)

Brachial artery spasm as a result of a sting. Med. J. Aust. 140: 181-182

 Aeschlimann, A., T. A. Freyvogel (1995)

Biology and distribution of ticks of medical importance. In: White, J, Meier, J, eds. Handbook of Clinical Toxicology of Animal Venoms and Poisons. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press: 177-190

 Ahlstrom, N. G., W. Luginbuhl, C. C. Tisher (1991)

Acute anuric renal failure after pigmy rattlesnake bite. S. med. J. 84: 783-785

 Ahmed, N., M. Pinkham, D. A. Warrell (2009)

Symptom in search of a toxin: muscle spasms following bites by Old World tarantula spiders (Lampropelma nigerrimum, Pterinochilus murinus, Poecilotheria regalis) with review. Q. J. Med.102: 851-857

 Ahmed, N., M. Pinkham, D. A. Warrell (2010)

Corrigendum. Symptom in search of a toxin: muscle spasms following bites by Old World tarantula spiders (Lampropelma nigerrimum, Pterinochilus murinus, Poecilotheria regalis) with review. Q. J. Med. 103: 203-204

 Ahuja, M. L., G. Singh (1954)

Snake bite in India. Ind. J. Med. Res. 42: 661-686

 Akimoto, R., Y. Watanabe, A. Sakai, Y. Kawamura, Y. Sawai (1991)

A case of defibrination syndrome due to Japanese colubrid snake, yamakagashi (Rhabdophis t. tigrinus) bite, treated with antivenom. Snake 23: 36-39

 Akre, R. D., H. C. Reed (1984)

Biology and distribution of social Hymenoptera. In Tu, A. T.: Handbook of natural toxins. Vol. 2. Marcel Dekker, New York: 3-47

 Alagon, A., J. A. Maraboto-Martinez, A. Chavez-Haro (1999)

Epidemiology, practice, and treatment of scorpion envenomation in Mexico. J. Venom. Animals and Toxins. 5 (1) Botucatu

 Alamir, B., R. Merad, L. Hamid-Assia, H. Ouahdi, A. Chacou (1992)

The scorpionic envenoming in Algeria. In Gopalakrishnakone, P., C. K. Than: Recent advances in toxinology research. National University of Singapore.: 25-31

 Alcala, A.C. (1983)

Recent cases of crab, cone shell, and fish intoxication on Southern Negros Island, Philippines. Toxicon (Suppl. 3), 1–3.

 Alcala, A. C., L. C. Alcala, J. S. Garth, D. Yasumura, T. Yasumoto (1988)

Human fatality due to ingestion of the crab Demania reynaudii that contained a palytoxin-like toxin. Toxicon 26: 105-107

 Alkan, M. L., S. Sukenik (1975)

Atrioventricular block in a case of snakebite inflicted by Atractaspis engaddensis. Trans. roy. Soc. trop. Med. Hyg. 69: 166

 Allon, N., E. Kochva (1974)

The quantities of venom injected into prey of different size by Vipera palaestinae in a single bite. J. Exp. Zool. 188: 71-76

 Alvarado-Diaz, J., Campbell, J.A. (2004)

A new montane rattlesnake (Viperidae) from Michoacán, Mexico. Herpetologica 60 (2): 281-286

 Amaral, C. F. S., D. Campolina, M. B. Dias, C. M. Bueno, et al. (1997)

Time factor in the detection of circulating whole venom and crotoxin and efficacy of antivenom therapy in patients envenomed by Crotalus durissus. Toxicon 35 (5): 699-704

 Amaral, C. F. S., D. Campolina, M. B. Dias, C. M. Bueno, N. A. Rezende (1998)

Tourniquet ineffectiveness to reduce the severity of envenoming after Crotalus durissus snake bite in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Toxicon 36 (5): 805-808

 Amaral, C. F. S., J. A. Lopes, R. A. Magalhaes, N. A. de Rezende (1991)

Electrocardiographic, enzymatic and echocardiographic evidence of myocardial damage after Tityus serrulatus scorpion poisoning. Amer. J. Cardiol. 67: 655-657

 Amaral, C. F. S., N. A. de Rezende, L. Freire-Maia (1992)

Acute pulmonary edema after Tityus serrulatus scorpion sting in children. Amer. J. Cardiol. 71: 242-245

 Amaral, C. F. S., N. A. de Rezende, O. A. de Silva, M. M. F. Ribeiro, R. A. Magalhaes, R. J. dos Reis, J. G. Carneiro, J. R. S. Castro (1986)

Insuficiencia renal aguda secundaria a acidentes ofidicos bothropico e crotalico. Analise de 63 casos. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. São Paulo 28: 220-227

 Amaral, C. F. S., O. A. da Silva, M. Lopez, E. R. P. Pedroso (1980)

Afibrinogenemia following snake bite (Crotalus durissus terrificus). Amer. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 29: 1453-1455

 Amaral, C. F. S., O. A. da Silva, P. Godoy, D. Miranda (1985)

Renal cortical necrosis following Bothrops jararaca and B. jararacussu snake bite. Toxicon 23: 877-885

 Amitai, Y., Y. Mines, M. Aker, K. Goitein (1985)

Scorpion sting in children, a review of 51 cases. Clin. Pediat. 24: 136-140

 Amorim, M. F., R. F. Mello (1952)

Nefrose do nefron intermediario no envenamento crotalico humano. Estudo anatomo-patologico. Mem. Inst. Butantan 24: 281-316

 Amorim, M. F., R. F. Mello (1954)

Intermediate nephron nephrosis from snake poisoning in man. Histopathologic study. Amer. J. Pathol. 30: 479-499

 Amr, Z. S., K. E. Hyland, R. Kinzelbach, S. S. Amr, D. Defosse (1988)

Scorpions et piqures de scorpions en Jordanie. Bull. Soc. Path. Ex. 81: 369-379

 Anderson, C. G., E. Greenbaum (2012)

Phylogeography of Northern Populations of the Black-Tailed Rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus Baird And Girard, 1853), With the Revalidation of C. ornatus Hallowell, 1854. Herpetological Monographs 26 (1): 19-57

 Annobil, S. H. (1993a)

Complications of Echis colorata snake bites in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia. Ann. trop. Paediat. 13: 39-44

 Annobil, S. H. (1993b)

Scorpion stings in children in the Asir Province of Saudi Arabia. J. Wilderness Med. 4: 241-251

 Annobil, S. H., M. F. Omojola, E. Vijayakumar (1991)

Intracranial haemorrhages after Nebo hierochonticus scorpion sting. Ann. trop. Paediat. 11: 377-380

 Antonini, G., M. Rasura, G. Conti, C. Mattia (1991)

Neuromuscular paralysis in Vipera aspis envenomation: pathogenic mechanisms. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 54: 187

 Antonypillai, C. N., J. A. H. Wass, D. A. Warrell, H. N. Rajaratnam (2011)

Hypopituitarism following envenoming by Russell's Vipers (Daboia siamensis and D. russelii) resembling Sheehan's syndrome: first case report from Sri Lanka, a review of the literature and recommendations for endocrine management. Q. J. Med. 104 (2): 97-108

 Aplin, K.P., S.C. Donnellan (1999)

An extended description of the Pilbara Death Adder, Acanthophis wellsi Hoser (Serpentes: Elapidae), with notes on the Desert Death Adder, A. pyrrhus Boulenger, and identification of a possible hybrid zone. Records of the Western Australian Museum 19: 277-298

 Aragon, F., F. Gubensek (1981)

Bothrops asper venom from the Atlantic and Pacific zones of Costa Rica. Toxicon 19: 797-805

 Aravanis, C., P. J. Ioannidis, J. Ktenas (1982)

Acute myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident in a young girl after a viper bite. Brit. Heart J. 47: 500-503

 Ariaratnam, C. A., M. H. Rezvi Sheriff, C. Arambepola, R. D. G. Theakston, D. A. Warrell (2009)

Syndromic approach to treatment of snake bite in Sri Lanka based on results of a prospective national hospital-based survey of patients envenomed by identified snakes. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 81 (4): 725-731

 Ariaratnam, C. A., M. H. Rezvi Sheriff, R. D. G. Theakston, D. A. Warrell (2008)

Distinctive epidemiologic and clinical features of common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) bites in Sri Lanka. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 79 (3): 458-462

 Ariaratnam, C. A., W. P. Meyer, G. Perera, M. Eddleston, et al. (1999)

A new monospecific ovine Fab fragment antivenom for treatment of envenoming by the Sri Lanka Russel's viper (Daboia russelii russelii): A preliminary dose-finding and pharmacokinetic study. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 61 (2): 259-265

 Arneil, G. C., J. C. Maclaurin (1961)

Case of adder-bite with thrombosis of the saphenous vein. Brit. med. J.: 1587-1588

 Arnold, S. H., W. D. Brown (1978)

Histamine (?) toxicity from fish products. Advanc. Food Res. 24: 114-154

 Arocha-Pinango, C. L., N. Blumenfeld de Bosch, A. L. Torres, J. Perales, M. E. Alonso, S. de Rodriguez, A. Z. Carvajal, A. Ojeda, M. L. Tasayco, W. Chitty (1988)

Fibrinolytic and procoagulant agents from a Saturnidae moth carterpillar. In Pirkle, H., F. S. Markland: Hemostasis and animal venoms. Marcel Dekker, New York: 223

 Asai, S., J. J. Krzanowski, W. H. Anderson, D. F. Martin, J. B. Polson, R. F. Lockey, S. C. Bukantz, A. Szentivanyi (1982)

Effects of the toxin of red tide, Ptychodiscus brevis, on canine tracheal smooth muscle: a possible new asthma-triggering mechanism. J. Allergy clin. Immunol. 69: 418-428

 Assakura, M. T., A. P. Reichl, F. R. Mandelbaum (1986)

Comparison of immunological, biochemical and biophysical properties of three hemorrhagic factors isolated from the venom of Bothrops jararaca (Jararaca). Toxicon 24: 943-946

 Atkins, J. A., C. W. Wingo, W. A. Sodeman, F. E. Flynn (1958)

Necrotic arachnidism. Amer. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 7: 165-184

 Atkinson, P. M., B. A. Bradlow, J. A. M. White, H. B. Greig, M. C. Gaillard (1980)

Clinical features of twig snake Thelotornis capensis envenomation. S. Afr. med. J. 58: 1007-1011

 Audebert, F., M. Sorkine, C. Bon (1992)

Envenoming by viper bites in France: Clinical gradation and biological quantification by ELISA. Toxicon 30: 599-609

 Audley, I. (1985)

A case of sea-snake envenomation. Med. J. Aust. 143: 532

 Auerbach, P. S., B. W. Halstead (1989)

Hazardous aquatic live. In Auerbach, P. S., E. C. Geehr: Management of wilderness and environmental emergencies, 2nd ed. The C. V. Mosby Company, St. Louis: 933-1028

 Auerbach, P. S., D. M. Yajko, P. S. Kizer, K. W. Nassos, J. E. McCosker, E. C. Geehr, W. K. Hadley (1987b)

Bacteriology of the marine environment: implications for clinical therapy. Ann. Emerg. Med. 16: 643-649

 Auerbach, P. S., H. E. McKinney, R. S. Rees, J. P. Heggers (1987a)

Analysis of vesicle fluid following the sting of the lionfish Pterois volitans. Toxicon 25: 1350-1353

 Auerbach, P. S., J. T. Hays (1987)

Erythema nodosum following a jellyfish sting. J. Emerg. Med. 5: 487-491

 Aung-Khin, M. (1980)

The problem of snake bite in Burma. Snake 12: 125-127

 Aye, M. M. (1990)

Venomous snakes of medical importance in Burma. In Gopalakrishnakone, P., L. M. Chou: Snakes of medical importance (Asia-pacific region). Venom and toxin research group national university of Singapore.: 211-241

 Ayerbe, S. (2000)

Ofidismo en el Departemento del Cauca, Colombia. Epidemiologia, etiologia, clinica y complicationes. Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Cauca, Popayan, Colombia, 2 (4): 21-27

 Ayerbe, S. (2001)

Tratamiento del ofidismo en el Departemento del Cauca, Colombia. Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Cauca, Popayan, Colombia, 3 (1): 20-26

 Azevedo-Marques, M. M., P. Cupo, C. F. S. Amaral, S. E. Hering (1990)

Rattlesnake bites. Clinical features and complemantary tests. Mem. Inst. Butantan 52 (suppl.): 27-30

 Azevedo-Marques, M. M., P. Cupo, T. M. Coimbra, S. E. Hering, M. A. Rossi, C. J. Laure (1985)

Myonecrosis, myoglobinuria and acute renal failure induced by South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) envenomation in Brazil. Toxicon 23: 631-636

 Azevedo-Marques, M. M., S. E. Hering, P. Cupo (1987)

Evidence that Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake) envenomation in humans causes myolysis rather than hemolysis. Toxicon 25: 1163-1168