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V1.6.13 T363
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Poisonous animals
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
Venomous fish
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
Sea snakes
Terrestrial snakes
Miscellaneous animals

Emergency & clinical flowcharts


Signs and symptoms1
  Emergency medical treatment   Region   Possible cause

Cholinergic effects:
vomiting, profuse sweating, hypersalivation, increased bronchial secretion, priapism, bradycardia, arterial hypotension (see Diagnosis & Treatment: Hospital)

Adrenergic effects:
tachycardia, arrhythmias, arterial hypertension, hyperglycaemia (see Diagnosis & Treatment: Hospital)

Somatic effects:
neuromuscular dysfunction of the skeletal musculature (muscle fasciculations and spasms, muscle pain, motor agitation), differential diagnosis: acute abdomen (see Diagnosis & Treatment: Hospital)


Local effects:
pain, redness, swelling, necrosis (see Diagnosis & Treatment: Hospital)


Early endotracheal intubation, suctioning of bronchial secretions, artificial respiration;
caution is required in the treatment of pulmonary oedema with diuretics if there is concurrent hypovolaemia (see Diagnosis & Treatment: Hospital);

caution is required in correcting hypovolaemia if there is concurrent pulmonary oedema (see Diagnosis & Treatment: Hospital);
muscle pain and cramps: calcium gluconate (see Diagnosis & Treatment: Hospital);
contraindicated or to be avoided: opiates, benzodiazepines

  Southeast Australia   Atrax sp.
Hadronyche sp.

  MAVIN Antivenom index
  Worldwide   Latrodectus sp.


  South America

 Phoneutria sp.


and possibly other species

Severe local pain and local swelling within 2–8 h after the bite;
local cyanosis within 12–24 h;
blister formation, possibly haemorrhagic;
necrosis within 24–48 h
  Infiltration with local anaesthetic (xylocaine 1%, max. 0.5 ml, without the addition of a vasoconstrictor), nerve block

North, Central and South America; Africa to the Mediterranean


Loxosceles sp.


  MAVIN Antivenom index
Contact with urticating hairs:
Eyes: conjunctivitis, keratitis, iritis, chorioretinitis;
Skin: urticaria, papular dermatitis (see "Bird spider-like species")
  Topical corticosteroids (see "Bird spider-like species")

Bird spider-like species

pain, redness, swelling, (necrosis)
  Symptomatic local treatment (see Diagnosis & Treatment: General practitioner / health post)
  Worldwide   Numerous species, including Chiracanthium sp.  







See also the Clinical flowchart as a guide to the dynamics of envenoming.

See "Essentials of the management of envenoming and poisoning: 9. How is the appropriate antivenom chosen? When is it administered?"

If clinical information regarding the efficacy of an antivenom is available, it is presented in the relevant Biomedical database entry.