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Bothrocophias spp., Toad-headed pitvipers

Clinical entries

For clinical data see section “Risk” below

formerly genus Bothrops


  • 1. Bothrocophias campbelli
  • 2. Bothrocophias colombianus
  • 3. Bothrocophias hyoprora
  • 4. Bothrocophias microphthalmus
  • 5. Bothrocophias myersi


-Bothrocophias colombianus is also described as a subspecies of Bothrocophias microphthalmus.

-Bothrops andianus is rediscribed as Botrocophias andianus by some authors (Carrasco et al., 2012).


Serpentes; Viperidae; Crotalinae

Common names

Toad-headed pitvipers

  • 1. Ecuadorian toad-headed pitviper
  • 2. Colombian toad-headed pitviper
  • 3. Amazonian toad-headed pitviper
  • 4. Small-eyed toad-headed pitviper
  • 5. Chocoan toad-headed pitviper


Northwestern South America. See link "Distribution" at the top of the page for detailed information.


Live in mesic forests such as lowland rainforests and wet mountain forests. Moderately slender to stout snakes. Posterior part of the head particularly broad. Snout pointed or round. In some the snout is turned upwards (mainly B. hyoprora).
Tail not prehensile. Basic colouring in varying shades of brown to black. A series of broad dark cross bands. Special element of the pattern is a series of yellow, white or pale blue-grey spots or bars on the infralabials. All species are distinctively stout-bodied and large-headed snakes, most easily confused with Boas.


B. hyoprora and B. microphthalmus bites seem to be potentially severe. A bite from a juvenile B. colombianus was reported to be severe (Ayerbe 2000, 2001).

Literature (biological)

Campbell and Lamar 2004

The Reptile Database