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Poisonous animals
 
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
 
Venomous fish
 
Scorpions
 
Spiders
 
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
 
Sea snakes
 
Terrestrial snakes
 
Miscellaneous animals
 
North America
 
Mexico and Central America
 
South America and the West Indies
 
Europe
 
North Africa, Near and Middle East
 
Central and Southern Africa
 
The Far East
 
Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia
 
Australia and the Pacific Islands
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Clinic

 

Micropechis ikaheca

Case reports

Papua New Guinea
Blasco and Hornabrook 1972: 1 case; very doubtful identification; discussion of several cases with a similar course.

 

Warrell et al. 1996: 11 cases. Identification: immunological, morphological (1/11). Systemic envenoming 6/11, no clinical evidence of envenoming 5/11.

Signs & symptoms

Autopharmacological effects

Vomiting 1/6 an dizziness 2/6 within 1h of the bite (Warrell et al. 1996).

Vomiting (Blasco and Hornabrook 1972).

Local effects

Local swelling at the site of the bite 2/6, local pain 1/6, local lymphadenopathy 2/6 (Warrell et al. 1996).

Haemostatic effects

Incoagulable blood 2/6 with spontaneous bleeding in 1/2 (Warrell et al. 1996).

Neurological effects

4/6 (ptosis 4/6, bulbar 3/6, limbs 3/6) (Warrell et al. 1996).

Paralysis of the extremities and respiratory musculature resulting in death (Blasco and Hornabrook 1972).

Muscular effects

Generalized muscle pain / tenderness 3/6, trismus 1/6, dark urine (Warrell et al. 1996).

Cardiac effects

See Laboratory and physical investigations below.

Renal effects

Dark urine. (Warrell et al. 1996).

Morbidity

-

Case fatality rate

2/11 (19 and 38h after the bite; respiratory paralysis) (Warrell et al. 1996).

 

Treatment (specific)

Antivenoms
Polyvalent (Australia-New Guinea), CSL, Parkville, Australia may be beneficial (Warrell et al. 1996).

Anecdotally, CSL death adder antivenom has proved ineffective (Warrell et al. 1996).