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Poisonous animals
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
Venomous fish
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
Sea snakes
Terrestrial snakes
Miscellaneous animals



Various scorpions


Bothriurius sp.
Torres 1993: 28 Bothriurius sp. stings. Identification: scorpions brought in by patients were identified. No signs of envenoming 9/28. Local and/or systemic signs of envenoming 19/28.

Euscorpius sp.
Torregiani and La Cavera 1990: review article.

Heterometrus bengalensis
Shah et al. 1989: 1 H. bengalensis sting. Identification: the scorpion was brought in by the patient and identified.

Nebo hierochonticus
Saudi Arabia
Annobil 1993: 47 scorpion stings in children. Identification of scorpions brought in by patients: Leiurus quinquestriatus 18/47, Nebo hierochonticus 2/47, Androctonus crassicauda 1/47, Scorpio maurus 1/47, Compsobuthus werberi 1/47, not identified 24/47; prospective study.

Rosin 1969: 2 N. hierochonticus stings in volunteers.

Signs & symptoms

Local effects

Bothriurius sp.
Local pain 17/28, local erythema 3/28, local oedema 2/28 (Torres 1993).

Euscorpius sp.
Only local effects such as pain, erythema (Torregiani and La Cavera 1990).

Heterometrus bengalensis
Local pain, minimal local signs of skin inflammation (Shah et al.1989).

Nebo hierochonticus
Local pain, swelling, itching 2/2, no systemic symptoms of envenoming (Rosin 1969).

Haemostatic effects

Nebo hierochonticus

Ocular fundus bleeding, transient blindness; cerebral and cerebellar haemorrhages (CT). Laboratory findings: aPTT increased, fibrinogen 0.96 g/l. This boy recovered completely (Annobil 1993b, Annobil et al. 1991).

Neurological effects (autonomic nervous system)

Bothriurius sp.
Arterial hypertension 5/28, vomiting 1/28 (Torres 1993).

Heterometrus bengalensis
Generalised paraesthesias, sweating, hypersalivation, nausea, arterial hypotension, tachycardia, pulmonary oedema (clinically and on chest X-ray)  (Shah et al. 1989).

Nebo hierochonticus
Arterial hypotension, severe pulmonary oedema, heart failure 1/2 (Annobil 1993b).