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V1.6.10 (T344, R003bb76b9)
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Poisonous animals
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
Venomous fish
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
Sea snakes
Terrestrial snakes
Miscellaneous animals
North America
Mexico and Central America
South America and the West Indies
North Africa, Near and Middle East
Central and Southern Africa
The Far East
Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia
Australia and the Pacific Islands



Various colubrids

Descriptions of isolated cases

excluding Boiga irregularis, Dispholidus typus, Thelotornis sp., Rhabdophis sp. (see seperate entries in biomedical database)


Minton 1990b

Case reports
Alsophis sp.: Schenone and Reyes 1965, Neill 1954, Poey 1973.
Alsophis cantherigerus: Jaume and Garrido 1980.
Alsophis portoricensis: Heatwole and Banuchi 1966.
Amplorhinus multimaculatus: Blake 1960.
Boiga barnsei, Boiga ceylonensis, Boiga trigonata, Boiga dendrophila: De Silva 1976a, Burger 1974.
Clelia clelia plumbea (Wied): Pinto et al. 1991.
C. ravergieri: Mamonov 1976, 1977.
C. rhodorachis: Branch 1982, Perry 1988. 
Coniophanes sp.: Brown 1939, Minton and Mebs 1978.
Conophis sp.: Ditmars 1931, Taylor and Smith 1939, Wellman 1963, Johnson 1988.

Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia: Chapman 1968.
Dendrelaphis papuae
: Neill 1949.
Diadophis punctatus
: Shaw and Campbell 1974. 
Dipsadoboa aulicus
: Branch 1982.
Dryophis (= Ahaetulla) nasuta
: Gooneratne 1968; De Silva 1976a.
Elaphe climacophora
: Mandell et al. 1980.
Elapomorphus bilineatus: De Lima 1978b.

Enhydris (= Hypsyhina) enhydris: D'Abreu 1931. 
Erythrolamprus aesculapii (= E. venustissimus): Quelch 1893, De Lima 1978a.
Heterodon nasicus, H. platyrhinos
: Bragg 1960, Grogan 1976, Kroll 1976, Fuller 1981, Morris 1985.

Homroselaps lacteus: Branch 1982.
Hydrodynastes (= Cyclagras) gigas
: Minton and Mebs 1978.
Leptophis ahaetulla
: Minton and Mebs 1978, Zwinenberg 1977. 
Leptophis diplotropis
: Zweifel and Norris 1954, Hardy and McDiarmid 1969.
Macrelaps microlepidotus
: Visser and Chapman 1978.
Malpolon monspessulanus: Gonzales 1978, 1979, Newman 1985.
Oxybelis anaeus: Crimmins 1937.
: Kraus and Werner 1931, Nickerson and Henderson 1976, Da Silva and Buononato 1983/84, Kuch and Jesberger 1993.
Pliocercus elapoides
: Seib 1980.
Psammophis biseriatus
: Sprawls 1979.
Psammophis phillipsii
and Psammophis sibilans: FitzSimons 1962, Broadly and Cock 1975.
Psammophylax (= Trimerorhinus) rhombeatus a
nd P. tritaeniatus: FitzSimons and Smith 1958, Branch 1982, Chapman 1968.
?Stenorrhina freminvillii: Cook 1984, Johnson 1988.

Tachymenis peruviana: Schenone and Reyes 1965, De Lima 1978a.
Telescopus semiannulatus: Branch 1982.
Thamnophis elegans vagrans
: Vest 1981. 
Thamnophis sirtalis
: Hayes and Hayes 1985, Nichols 1986.
Trimorphodon biscutatus
: Lowe et al. 1986.
Xenodon severus
: Quelch 1893.


Signs & symptoms

Autopharmacological effects
Local effects

Malpolon monspessulanus: local symptoms.
Tachymenis peruviana: local symptoms.

Haemostatic effects

Elapomorphus bilineatus: gingival bleeding, haematuria.
Tachymenis peruviana: haemorrhage.

Neurological effects

Malpolon monspessulanus: ptosis, dysphagia, dyspnoea.

Muscular effects
Cardiac effects
Renal effects
Other signs & symptoms


Case fatality rate

Labor and physical researches

Therapy (symptomatic)

1. Endotracheal intubation and artificial respiration,
2. if bleeding is critical, blood transfusions, clotting factor replacement, platelets.

Therapy (specific)

Antivenom: no antivenom available.