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Poisonous animals
 
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
 
Venomous fish
 
Scorpions
 
Spiders
 
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
 
Sea snakes
 
Terrestrial snakes
 
Miscellaneous animals
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Clinic

 

Cone shells

Clinical studies, case reports and reviews

Conus sp.
Kohn 1963: case reports.
McMichael 1971: case reports.

 

Australia
Flecker 1936: 1 C. geographus sting; identification: morphological.

 

Guam
Rice and Halstead 1968: 1 C. geographus sting; identification: morphological.

Reviews
Kohn 1963
McMichael 1971
Sutherland 1983

Signs & symptoms

Local effects

Sharp local pain at the time of the sting. Local swelling (Kohn 1963, McMichael 1971, Sutherland 1983).

Neurological effects

Rapid paralysis of the cranial nerves and skeletal musculature, including the respiratory musculature. Respiratory insufficiency and respiratory failure (Flecker 1936, Kohn 1963, McMichael 1971, Rice and Halstead 1968, Sutherland 1983). 

Case fatality rate

1/1 (Flecker 1936).
1/1 (Rice and Halstead 1968).

First aid

Compression-immobilisation method  (Sutherland 1983).

Treatment (symptomatic)

Endotracheal intubation and artificial respiration.

Treatment (specific)

Antivenom
Not available.