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Poisonous animals
 
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
 
Venomous fish
 
Scorpions
 
Spiders
 
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
 
Sea snakes
 
Terrestrial snakes
 
Miscellaneous animals
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Clinic

 

Formicidae

Studies

Myrmecia pilosula
Australia

Clarke 1986: 100 cases. Method: appeal in the newspaper for persons who had suffered an attack by these ants to contact the author. The first 100 responses were evaluated.


Solenopsis sp. (chiefly S. invicta)
USA (south)
Rhoades et al. 1989: 32 fatal cases, of which 4 are described in detail. Method: questionnaires were sent to 29,300 doctors.

Case reports

Solenopsis sp.
USA (south)
Bloom and DelMastro 1984: 1 case. Identification: morphological.
Fox et al. 1982: 3 cases. Identification: morphological.
Stablein et al. 1985: 1 case. Identification: morphological.

Reviews

Solenopsis sp. (chiefly S. invicta)
USA (south)
DeShazo et al. 1990.
Stablein and Lockey 1987.

Signs & symptoms

Autopharmacological effects

Myrmecia pilosula
Systemic reactions 49/100, including loss of consciousness 5/49, erythema and urticaria 9/49, shortness of breath and weakness 8/49, nausea and vomiting 3/49 (the severity of the reaction appears to increase following repeated stings) (Clarke 1986).

Solenopsis sp.

Systemic anaphylactic reactions, such as generalised erythema, pruritus, urticaria and/or angio-oedema, gastrointestinal symptoms, bronchospasm, laryngeal oedema and arterial hypotension (onset within minutes following injection of venom) (Bloom and DelMastro 1984, Stablein and Lockey 1987, Stablein et al. 1985).

Local effects

Myrmecia pilosula
Local pain, local skin lesion 36/100 (Clarke 1986).

Solenopsis sp.

Very strong local pain, local pustular skin lesion (most common reaction to injection of venom and almost always occurs). Bacterial secondary infections are a common complication (see below) (Stablein and Lockey 1987).

Extensive local reaction that develops within hours after injection of venom. This form of reaction occurs in 30–50% of cases (Stablein and Lockey 1987).

Neurological effects

Solenopsis sp.

Cerebral seizures, bilateral wrist-drop (Fox et al. 1982).

Morbidity

Bacterial secondary effects of the pustular skin lesions are a common complication. Fatal sepsis can occur (Stablein and Lockey 1987).