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Clinic

 

Naja atra (Naja naja atra)

Studies

Taiwan
Kuo and Wu 1972: 13 patients whose bites were attributed to Naja atra (N. n. atra) (there is no indication in the report of the basis on which species identification was made). 3 detailed case reports.


China
Sawai et al. 1992: 291 patients whose bites were attributed to Naja atra (N. n. atra) (there is no indication in the report of the basis on which species identification was made; however, it can be assumed that a large number of the victims would know this snake, as it is captured for commercial purposes; 104 of the bites described in the report occurred in the course of such activity).

Signs & symptoms

Local effects

Local pain and swelling: 12/13 (Kuo and Wu 1972); 249/291 (Sawai et al. 1992).
Necroses 8/13 (Kuo and Wu 1972); 119/291 (31/119 had lasting deformities and impairment of function) (Sawai et al. 1992).

Neurological effects

Ptosis 2/13, dyspnoea or respiratory failure 2/13 (Kuo and Wu 1972).
Signs of paralysis 25/291 (Sawai et al. 1992).

Other effects

Nausea, vomiting. Abdominal pain 7/13, diarrhoea 3/13 (this symptom appeared in one of the patients described in detail after administration of traditional medicine) (Kuo and Wu 1972).

Case fatality rate

0/13 (Kuo and Wu 1972).
2/291 (Sawai et al. 1992).

Morbidity

Soft tissue defects, deformities and impairment of function (Kuo and Wu 1972).
Necroses 119/291; 31/119 had lasting deformities and impairment of function (as with Naja spp. in Malaysia, the main problems with N. atra bites appear to be necroses and their consequences) (Sawai et al. 1992).

Laboratory and physical investigations

Leucocytes
Leucocytosis 11/12 (Kuo and Wu 1972).

Treatment (specific)

Antivenom treatment (name of the venom not given) (Sawai et al. 1992).

Efficacy
China
15/291 patients received 1–5 vials (1,000 U/vial), 2 of them had signs of paralysis. No information regarding efficacy is given (Sawai et al. 1992).