Go to start page
V1.2.0 (T12376)
Disclaimer & Information
Search
Show Mindmap
 
Poisonous animals
 
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
 
Venomous fish
 
Scorpions
 
Spiders
 
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
 
Sea snakes
 
Terrestrial snakes
 
Miscellaneous animals
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Is the patient envenomed?

 

Is it likely that a clinically relevant injection of venom has taken place?

D  Diagnostics

Inquire re:

  • time of the bite,
  • local pain,
  • nausea, vomiting.

Assess:

  • state of consciousness (restlessness, sleepiness, coma).

Measure:

  • blood pressure/pulse,
  • breathing (respiratory rate).

Investigate/observe:

  • local swelling,
  • local redness.

Systemic reactions:

  • sweating,
  • hypersalivation, increased bronchial secretion,
  • priapism,
  • abdominal pain (acute pancreatitis),
  • bradycardia/tachycardia/cardiac arrhythmia,
  • arterial hypotension/hypertension,
  • apical systolic murmur (mitral regurgitation), protodiastolic gallop,
  • clinical signs of pulmonary oedema,
  • clinical signs of shock,
  • clinical signs of acute hypertensive encephalopathy,
  • blurred vision, "wandering" eye movements,
  • dysphagia,
  • dysarthria,
  • pharyngeal reflex,
  • generalised muscle pain and cramps,
  • muscle weakness,
  • paralysis of the respiratory musculature (respiratory failure).

Record and measure:

  • ECG (cardiac arrhythmias, "myocardial infarction-like pattern"),
  • blood sugar.

Exclusion of a clinically relevant systemic reaction

D  Diagnostics

Monitoring for signs and symptoms of systemic envenoming for 12–24 h.

C  Comments

Severe systemic symptoms of envenoming may first arise a long time after the sting (see Parabuthus spp.; Müller 1993, Smith et al. 1983).