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Poisonous animals
 
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
 
Venomous fish
 
Scorpions
 
Spiders
 
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
 
Sea snakes
 
Terrestrial snakes
 
Miscellaneous animals
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Is the patient envenomed?

 

Is it likely that injection of venom has taken place?

D  Diagnostics

Inquire re:

  • time of the sting,
  • local, possibly regional pain,
  • nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea.

Assess:

  • state of consciousness.

Measure:

  • blood pressure/pulse,
  • respiratory rate.

Observe/investigate:

  • puncture sites,
  • number of puncture sites (important in Stonefish stings for assessment of the amount of venom injected and to determine the antivenom dose),
  • local/regional swelling,
  • clinical signs of cardiovascular disturbances, such as cardiac dysrhythmias, arterial hypotension,
  • signs of paralysis.