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Poisonous animals
 
Cnidarians (Jellyfish, Corals and Anemones)
 
Venomous fish
 
Scorpions
 
Spiders
 
Hymenopterans (Bees, Wasps and Ants)
 
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Terrestrial snakes
 
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Genus/Species

 

Fish with poisonous epidermal gland secretions (ichthyocrinotoxic)

Clinical entries

For clinical data see section “Risk” below

Species

There is a risk of poisoning with consumption of the skin of several species from the following families (Auerbach and Halstead 1989):

  1. Myxinidae
  2. Petromyzonidae
  3. Muraenidae
  4. Batrachoididae
  5. Serranidae
  6. Ostraciontidae

Taxonomy

Pisces; 1. & 2.: Cyclostomata; 3-6.: Osteychthyes

Common names

  1. Hagfish, Inger
  2. Lampreys, Neunaugen
  3. Moray eels, Muränen
  4. Toadfishes, Froschfische
  5. Sea bass, Groupers, Zackenbarsche
  6. Trunkfishes, Kofferfische

Distribution

Marine representatives, Petromyzontidae also in freshwater in the Northern Hemisphere.

Biology

Crinotoxic fish produce toxic secretions in their epidermal glands that are released into the water and thus possibly have a repellent effect on predators. Eating the skin can lead to gastrointestinal complaints. Even mere contact can cause a skin irritation. If such glands are associated with rays, parenteral envenoming may result.

Puffers, Porcupinefishes, Sharp-nosed puffers and possibly Trunkfishes are also crinotoxic, but represent an exception, as one of the secretions produced by their epidermal glands is the strongly potent tetrodotoxin, which is also found in the flesh and viscera. These fish are discussed under Tetrodotoxic fish.

Risk

Oral poisoning is caused by consumption of the skin. In Hagfish and Lampreys there is probably also poison in the flesh. There are no clinical data available, but the symptoms appear to be confined to gastrointestinal complaints.

Moray eels, Trunkfishes, Groupers and Toadfishes are also considered potentially ciguatoxic.

Treatment

Symptomatic, see also ciguatera poisoning.

Literature (biological)

Halstead 1988, Auerbach and Halstead 1989, Bagnis et al. 1970